Saturday, 19 July 2014
These birds are quite small and walk along the ground looking for seeds. They like nijer or thistle seeds.
I saw one in the beginning of the week in a garden in the Quad-Cities in Iowa, and one here in Upper State New York a few minutes ago.
These birds can be rather tame and trusting.
I think they are far south in Iowa because of the cold snap, although I have seen them there in the past many times.
From the same source as the other two posts today.
Chapter 4. On the infallible teaching authority of the Roman pontiff
- That apostolic primacy which the Roman pontiff possesses as successor of Peter, the prince of the apostles, includes also the supreme power of teaching.
- This holy see has always maintained this,
- the constant custom of the church demonstrates it, and
- the ecumenical councils, particularly those in which East and West met in the union of faith and charity, have declared it.
- So the fathers of the fourth council of Constantinople, following the footsteps of their predecessors, published this solemn profession of faith:
- The first condition of salvation is to maintain the rule of the true faith. And since that saying of our lord Jesus Christ, You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church  , cannot fail of its effect, the words spoken are confirmed by their consequences. For in the apostolic see the catholic religion has always been preserved unblemished, and sacred doctrine been held in honour. Since it is our earnest desire to be in no way separated from this faith and doctrine, we hope that we may deserve to remain in that one communion which the apostolic see preaches, for in it is the whole and true strength of the christian religion  .
- "The holy Roman church possesses the supreme and full primacy and principality over the whole catholic church. She truly and humbly acknowledges that she received this from the Lord himself in blessed Peter, the prince and chief of the apostles, whose successor the Roman pontiff is, together with the fullness of power. And since before all others she has the duty of defending the truth of the faith, so if any questions arise concerning the faith, it is by her judgment that they must be settled." 
- "The Roman pontiff is the true vicar of Christ, the head of the whole church and the father and teacher of all Christians; and to him was committed in blessed Peter, by our lord Jesus Christ, the full power of tending, ruling and governing the whole church." 
- To satisfy this pastoral office, our predecessors strove unwearyingly that the saving teaching of Christ should be spread among all the peoples of the world; and with equal care they made sure that it should be kept pure and uncontaminated wherever it was received.[Custom]
- It was for this reason that the bishops of the whole world, sometimes individually, sometimes gathered in synods, according to the long established custom of the churches and the pattern of ancient usage referred to this apostolic see those dangers especially which arose in matters concerning the faith. This was to ensure that any damage suffered by the faith should be repaired in that place above all where the faith can know no failing  .[Holy See]
- The Roman pontiffs, too, as the circumstances of the time or the state of affairs suggested,
- sometimes by
- summoning ecumenical councils or
- consulting the opinion of the churches scattered throughout the world, sometimes by
- special synods, sometimes by
- taking advantage of other useful means afforded by divine providence,
- defined as doctrines to be held those things which, by God's help, they knew to be in keeping with
- sacred scripture and
- the apostolic traditions.
- sometimes by
- For the holy Spirit was promised to the successors of Peter
- not so that they might, by his revelation, make known some new doctrine,
- but that, by his assistance, they might religiously guard and faithfully expound the revelation or deposit of faith transmitted by the apostles.
- embraced by all the venerable fathers and
- reverenced and followed by all the holy orthodox doctors,
- This gift of truth and never-failing faith was therefore divinely conferred on Peter and his successors in this see so that they might discharge their exalted office for the salvation of all, and so that the whole flock of Christ might be kept away by them from the poisonous food of error and be nourished with the sustenance of heavenly doctrine. Thus the tendency to schism is removed and the whole church is preserved in unity, and, resting on its foundation, can stand firm against the gates of hell.
- But since in this very age when the salutary effectiveness of the apostolic office is most especially needed, not a few are to be found who disparage its authority, we judge it absolutely necessary to affirm solemnly the prerogative which the only-begotten Son of God was pleased to attach to the supreme pastoral office.
- faithfully adhering to the tradition received from the beginning of the christian faith,
- to the glory of God our saviour,
- for the exaltation of the catholic religion and
- for the salvation of the christian people,
- with the approval of the sacred council,
- we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma that
- when the Roman pontiff speaks EX CATHEDRA,
- that is, when,
- in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians,
- in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority,
- he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole church,
- that is, when,
- he possesses,
- by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter,
- that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals.
- Therefore, such definitions of the Roman pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the church, irreformable.
- when the Roman pontiff speaks EX CATHEDRA,
Again, numbers are not as in original text found in same source as post below....
- And so faith in itself,
- even though it may not work through charity,
- is a gift of God,
- and its operation is a work belonging to the order of salvation,
- in that a person yields true obedience to God himself when he accepts and collaborates with his grace which he could have rejected.
- Wherefore, by divine and catholic faith all those things are to be believed
- which are contained in the word of God as found in scripture and tradition,
- and which are proposed by the church as matters to be believed as divinely revealed,
- whether by her solemn judgment
- or in her ordinary and universal magisterium.
- Since, then, without faith it is impossible to please God  and reach the fellowship of his sons and daughters, it follows that
- no one can ever achieve justification without it,
- neither can anyone attain eternal life unless he or she perseveres in it to the end.
- So that we could fulfil our duty of embracing the true faith and of persevering unwaveringly in it, God, through his only begotten Son,
- founded the church,
- and he endowed his institution with clear notes to the end that she might be recognised by all as the guardian and teacher of the revealed word.
- To the catholic church alone belong all those things, so many and so marvellous, which have been divinely ordained to make for the manifest credibility of the christian faith.
- What is more,
- the church herself
- by reason of
- her astonishing propagation,
- her outstanding holiness and
- her inexhaustible fertility in every kind of goodness, by
- her catholic unity and
- her unconquerable stability,
- is a kind of great and perpetual motive of credibility and an incontrovertible evidence of her own divine mission.
- the church herself
This numbering is off from the original text-from this site:
- Everybody knows that those heresies, condemned by the fathers of Trent, which rejected the divine magisterium of the church and allowed religious questions to be a matter for the judgment of each individual, have gradually collapsed into a multiplicity of sects, either at variance or in agreement with one another; and by this means a good many people have had all faith in Christ destroyed.
- Indeed even the holy Bible itself, which they at one time claimed to be the sole source and judge of the christian faith, is no longer held to be divine, but they begin to assimilate it to the inventions of myth.
- Thereupon there came into being and spread far and wide throughout the world that doctrine of rationalism or naturalism, - utterly opposed to the christian religion, since this is of supernatural origin, - which spares no effort to bring it about that Christ, who alone is our lord and saviour, is shut out from the minds of people and the moral life of nations. Thus they would establish what they call the rule of simple reason or nature. The abandonment and rejection of the christian religion, and the denial of God and his Christ, has plunged the minds of many into the abyss of pantheism, materialism and atheism, and the consequence is that they strive to destroy rational nature itself, to deny any criterion of what is right and just, and to overthrow the very foundations of human society.
- With this impiety spreading in every direction, it has come about, alas, that many even among the children of the catholic church have strayed from the path of genuine piety, and as the truth was gradually diluted in them, their catholic sensibility was weakened. Led away by diverse and strange teachings  and confusing
- nature and grace,
- human knowledge and divine faith,
- At the sight of all this, how can the inmost being of the church not suffer anguish? For
- just as God wills all people to be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth  , just as Christ came to save what was lost  and to gather into one the children of God who were scattered abroad  ,
- so the church, appointed by God to be mother and mistress of nations, recognises her obligations to all and is always ready and anxious
- to raise the fallen,
- to steady those who stumble,
- to embrace those who return, and
- to strengthen the good and urge them on to what is better.
- And so we, following in the footsteps of our predecessors, in accordance with our supreme apostolic office, have never left off
- teaching and defending catholic truth and
- condemning erroneous doctrines.