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Tuesday, 25 August 2015

The Forty Catholic Virtues Part Two-The Second Twenty



The list of the second twenty Catholic virtues, (several others to be noted in Part Three); and these lists, with the previous and next one, are not exhaustive. The quotations are for your meditation:

affability or friendliness

As stated above (109, 2; I-II, 55, 3), since virtue is directed to good, wherever there is a special kind of good, there must needs be a special kind of virtue. Now good consists in order, as stated above (Question 109, Article 2). And it behooves man to be maintained in a becoming order towards other men as regards their mutual relations with one another, in point of both deeds and words, so that they behave towards one another in a becoming manner. Hence the need of a special virtue that maintains the becomingness of this order: and this virtue is called friendliness.---St. Thomas Aquinas

art and science

Art, according to the Schoolmen, signifies the right method with regard to external productions (recta ratio factibilium). Just as science perfects and directs the intellect to reason correctly with regard to its proper object in view of the attainment of truth, so also art perfects and directs the intellect in the application of certain rules in view of the production of external works, whether these be of a useful or ├Žsthetic character. Hence the division into useful and fine arts. Art has this in common with the three speculative intellectual habits, that they are all virtues only in a restricted sense. Hence they constitute a man good only in a qualified sense, e.g. a good geometrician or a good sculptor. For the proper function of science as art, as such, is not to confer moral goodness, but to direct the intellect in its scientific or artistic processes.--- CE

The gifts of understanding and knowledge are more perfect than the knowledge of faith in the point of their greater clearness, but not in regard to more certain adhesion: because the whole certitude of the gifts of understanding and knowledge, arises from the certitude of faith, even as the certitude of the knowledge of conclusions arises from the certitude of premises. But in so far as science, wisdom and understanding are intellectual virtues, they are based upon the natural light of reason, which falls short of the certitude of God's word, on which faith is founded. --- St. Thomas Aquinas

religion

...order comes under the aspect of good, just as mode and species, according to Augustine (De Nat. Boni iii). Since then it belongs to religion to pay due honor to someone, namely, to God, it is evident that religion is a virtue.---St. Thomas Aquinas

piety, including righteousness, patriotism, and respect

what is due to God, parents, country, others...four separate virtues

There is only one salvation for you: take yourself up, and make yourself responsible for all the sins of men. For indeed it is so, my friend, and the moment you make yourself sincerely responsible for everything and everyone, you will see at once that it is really so, that it is you who are guilty on behalf of all and for all. Whereas by shifting your own laziness and powerlessness onto others, you will end by sharing in Satan's pride and murmuring against God.---The Brothers Karamazov
Book VI - The Russian Monk, Chapter 3 - Conversations and Exhortations of Father Zosima.”
― Fyodor Dostoyevsky


gratitude

May today there be peace within. May you trust God that you are exactly where you are meant to be. May you not forget the infinite possibilities that are born of faith. May you use those gifts that you have received, And pass on the love that has been given to you. May you be content knowing you are a child of God. Let this presence settle into your bones And allow your soul the freedom to sing, dance, praise and love. It is there for each and every one of us. ---St. Teresa of Avila

Ingratitude is  “the cause, beginning, and origin of all evils and sins.”---St. Ignatius of Loyola

liberality or kindness in giving things, time, attention, and money

Justice has to do with the fellowship of mankind. For the notion of fellowship is divided into two parts, justice and beneficence, also called liberality or kind-heartedness.---St. Ambrose


A tree is known by its fruit; a man by his deeds. A good deed is never lost; he who sows courtesy reaps friendship, and he who plants kindness gathers love.--- Saint Basil


decorum or modesty


1 Corinthians 14:40 Douay-Rheims  But let all things be done decently, and according to order.
Nehemiah 8:8-12 Douay-Rheims

8 And they read in the book of the law of God distinctly and plainly to be understood: and they understood when it was read.

9 And Nehemias (he is Athersatha) and Esdras the priest and scribe, and the Levites who interpreted to all the people, said: This is a holy day to the Lord our God: do not mourn, nor weep: for all the people wept, when they heard the words of the law.

10 And he said to them: Go, eat fat meats, and drink sweet wine, and send portions to them that have not prepared for themselves: because it is the holy day of the Lord, and be not sad: for the joy of the Lord is our strength.

11 And the Levites stilled all the people, saying: Hold your peace, for the day is holy, and be not sorrowful.

12 So all the people went to eat and drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth: because they understood the words that he had taught them.


1 Timothy 2:9 Douay-Rheims

9 In like manner women also in decent apparel: adorning themselves with modesty and sobriety, not with plaited hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly attire...


compassion

Mary appears to Christians of all times as the one who feels deep compassion for the sufferings of humanity. This compassion does not consist only in an emotional sympathy, but is expressed in effective and concrete help when confronted with humanity's material and moral misery.
In following Mary, the Church is called to take on the same attitude towards all the earth's poor and suffering. The maternal attention of the Lord's Mother to the tears, sorrows and hardships of the men and women of all ages must spur Christians, particularly at the dawn of the new millennium, to increase the concrete and visible signs of a love that will enable today's humble and suffering people to share in the promises and hopes of the new world which is born from Easter.---St. John Paul II  General Audience on Wednesday, 22 November 1995

munificence, a subset virtue of generosity

The virtue of munificence refers to a firm habit to desire and do great works for the benefit of others. It is generally contrasted with the virtue of generosity, which is the firm disposition to sacrifice what one has for the good of others, even though what one has may be small and even though it may help only one beneficiary. Munificence, on the other hand, refers to sacrifices of great amounts for the benefit of many. Father Roger Landry

chastity

In this great pastoral effort there is an urgent need for the entire Christian community to recover an appreciation of the virtue of chastity. The integrating and liberating function of this virtue (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2338-2343) should be emphasized by a formation of the heart, which presents the Christian understanding of sexuality as a source of genuine freedom, happiness and the fulfilment of our fundamental and innate human vocation to love. It is not merely a question of presenting arguments, but of appealing to an integrated, consistent and uplifting vision of human sexuality. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI Address to American Bishops, March 9th, 2012

abstinence and sobriety, subsets of temperance

Dear friends, what the Christian should be doing at all times should be done now with greater care and devotion, so that the Lenten fast enjoined by the apostles may be fulfilled, not simply by abstinence from food but above all by the renunciation of sin. --- Saint Leo the Great.


magnanimity, constancy, longanimity, subsets of virtue of fortitude

Fortitude has two principal acts: to undertake courageously and to endure difficult things. The Christian should endure them for the love of God; it is more difficult to endure for a long time than in a moment of enthusiasm, to undertake courageously something difficult. (9)
Fortitude is accompanied by patience to endure the sorrows of life without being disturbed and without murmuring, by longanimity which endures trials for a long time, and by constancy in good, which is opposed to obduracy in evil.
To the virtue of fortitude is also linked that of magnanimity, which leads to the lofty practice of all the virtues,(10) avoiding pusillanimity and effeminacy, but without falling into presumption, vainglory, or ambition.
The gift of fortitude adds a superior perfection to the virtue of fortitude. It disposes us to receive the special inspirations of the Holy Ghost, which are given to sustain our courage in the presence of danger and to drive out worry over not being able to accomplish a great duty or to endure trials. This gift makes us preserve, in spite of everything, "hunger and thirst after the justice of God." (11)
The heroic degree of the virtue of fortitude appears especially in martyrdom, undergone to give testimony to a truth of faith or to the grandeur of a Christian virtue. Outside of martyrdom, the virtue of fortitude, the gift of fortitude, patience, and magnanimity intervene each time that something heroic is to be accomplished or a great trial to be borne.---Garrigou-Lagrange in The Three Ages of the Interior Life

poverty

The devil does not have only one weapon. He uses many different means to defeat human beings: now with bribery, now with boredom, now with greed he attacks, inflicting mental and physical wounds equally. The kind of temptation varies with the different kinds of victim. Avarice is the test of the rich, loss of children that of parents and everyone is exposed to pain of mind or body. What a wealth of weapons is at the devil’s disposal! It was for this reason that the Lord chose to have nothing to lose. He came to us in poverty so that the devil could find nothing to take away from him. You see the truth of this when you hear the Lord himself saying:
“The prince of this world is come and has found nothing in me”John 14:30. The devil could only test him with bodily pain, but this too was useless because Christ despised bodily suffering. Job was tested by his own goods, whereas Christ was tempted, during the experience of the wilderness, by the goods of all. In fact, the devil robbed Job of his riches and offered Christ the kingdom of the whole world. Job was tested by vexations, Christ by prizes. Job the faithful servant replied: “The Lord has given and the Lord has taken away” Job 1:21 Christ, being conscious of his own divine nature, scorned the devil’s offering of what already belonged to him.

So let us not be afraid of temptations. Rather, let us glory in them saying: “When I am weak, then am I strong.” 2 Cor. 12:10. – Saint Ambrose 


to be continued... a few more to make over forty.........................................