The first ism which underlines the medical ethics stand called Principle-ism. Principle-ism, as taught in some medical colleges, refers back to the United Nations and other modern modern systems of ethics, not based on any religious structures. I shall cover the isms one by one. This is direct information from one of the courses.
Principlism details are based on Deontology, Utilitarianism, Rights Theory, and Communitarianism. I also add the emphasis on Autonomy and Consequentialism, which I shall examine first in the next post.
It grew out of the work of Tom Beauchamp & James Childress in the U.S. – in an attempt to provide a systematic, rational approach to health care ethics that would be accepted globally.
It drew from all the major ethical systems which had been developed by philosophers historically and uses insights from them, applied to health care
Principlism is constantly developing – the sixth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics (2009) contains major revisions and the addition of new material, particularly in the areas of:
Applying and balancing principles to complex situations;
Professionalism for the doctor – in ways to development of moral character & professional virtues / excellences;
Consideration of the status of the patient – by looking at a variety of theories of moral status.
from INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS & ETHICAL SYSTEMS and MORAL PRINCIPLES IN HEALTH CARE ETHICS by Prof David Smith
To be continued...